# What is matter?

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• #605
Gyula Szász
Moderator

What is matter?

The physicists could not recognize and explain until recent time what matter is because the researches believed on the Universality of Free Fall (UFF) since Galileo. The UFF-hypothesis is equivalent to the equality of the gravitational mass and the inertial mass of each body.

But the equality of the gravitational and inertial mass is not given in Nature; the UFF is violated https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WsyJjxC7SRc.

In my physical theory, I could explain, http://www.atomsz.com that the matter is composed on four kinds of stable elementary particles (electron (e), positron (p), proton (P) and elton (E)) which carry two kinds of conserved charges: the elementary electric, qi = {± e}, and the elementary gravitational charges, gi = {± g∙mi}. The G = g2/4∙π is the universal gravitational constant and mP, me are the elementary masses of proton and electron. These quantized charges create two fundamental interacting fields between all the particles and these fields propagate with a constant velocity c. The constant propagation of the fields is independent of the state of the emitting particles. The constant velocity of the interactions connects the space and time to a (3+1) dimensional continuum. More dimensional space is not needed in physics.

The Planck constant, h, play the role of a Lagrange multiplier and does not quantizes the energy: light quanta (photons) do not exists in Nature. The quantum theory in physics is based on the quantized charges which cause the interactions. The electromagnetism and the gravitation are unified in one comprehensive physical theory. More interactions are not needed.

There exists a general uncertainty principle in Nature: neither the positions, nor the velocities of the particles can be ever determined exactly. The laws of Nature are non-deterministic, however causal.

A comprehensive physical description of Nature is achievable within an atomistic theory of matter (ATOM) based on stable elementary particles and not with quantized energetic theories. In ATOM are all unnecessary and unphysical assumptions thrown away. This is equal to a complete paradigm-shift in modern physics.

Gyula I. Szász

#606
Gyula Szász
Moderator

The particles/bodies have always two masses

The particles/bodies are composed of four kinds of stable elementary particles (electron (e), positron (p), proton (P) and elton (E)). The elementary particles are not composed of other particles and there exist no other particles than e, p, P and E.

The gravitational masses, mg, of particles/bodies are conserved
mg(NP,NE,Ne,Np) = |(NP-NE)∙mP + (Np-Ne)∙me|,
whereby Ni are the number of elementary particles, e, p, P and E, and mP, me are the mass of the proton and the electron, atomsz.com .

The gravitation is caused of the conserved elementary charges, gi = g∙mi with the universal gravitational constant G = g^2/4∙π. The elementary masses, mP, me, are derived from the conserved elementary charges, gi. The static gravitational force between two elementary particles is

F(g)(rij) = – gi∙gj∙rij /4∙π∙ rij^3.

Depending on the sign of gi, there exists also repulsive gravitational force.

The inertial masses, mi, of particles/bodies

mi(NP,NE,Ne,Np) = (NP+NE)∙mP + (Np+Ne)∙me –E(bound)/c^2

appear in the equation of motion. The interaction between particles is always the addition of the gravitational and electromagnetic interactions. The electromagnetic interaction is also caused of conserved elementary charges, qi = {±e} and the static electric force is

F(em)(rij) = + qi∙qj∙rij /4∙π∙ rij^3.

There exist no other interaction between the stable elementary particles than the electromagnetism and the gravitation and these interactions propagate with the constant velocity c.

Obviously, the gravitational and inertial masses of composed particles are different. That means the Universality of Free Fall is obviously violated https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WsyJjxC7SRc .

The gravitational and inertial masses of particle/bodies are greater or equal zero. For the neutrinos νe =(e,p) and νP =(P,E) are both masses zero. The elementary masses mP, me can be neither annihilated, nor created.

This theory is an Atomistic Theory of Matter. The modern physics developed in the last century was an energetic theory which must be obviously replaced.

Gyula I. Szász

The Universality of Free Fall (UFF) is violated
The overwhelming numbers of physical researchers are the meaning that the UFF is valid for all bodies. Also Einstein believed on the UFF.

However, in reality the UFF is violated:

Proton based electric neutral bodies
– attract proton based electric neutral bodies with different accelerations,
– neutrinos are neither attracted, nor repulsed,
– repulse elton (”antiproton”) based electric neutral bodies with different accelerations.
Elton based electric neutral bodies
– repulse proton based electric neutral bodies with different accelerations,
– neutrinos are neither attracted, nor repulsed,
– attract elton (”antiproton”) based electric neutral bodies with different accelerations.

Gyula I. Szász

The four kinds of stable elementary particles, e, p, P and E, cannot approach each other nearly than 10^-17 cm under the influence of their own interactions.

Gyula I. Szász

The fundamental interactions are non-conservative

The electromagnetic and the gravitational interactions are non-conservative since they are emitted by radiating particles. The particles radiate fields which propagate with the constant velocity c and the propagations are independent of the state of the emitting particles. The positions and velocities of the particles are never known exactly.

In Minkowski space in which the fields and the particles move, the equations of particle motions contain Lagrange multipliers because of the subsidiary conditions of the particle numbers conservation. The Planck constant

h = e^2/2c∙(m’∙c^2/2∙E(bound))^1/2 (1)

is a Lagrange multiplier, whereby m’ = me∙mp/(me+mP) is the reduced mass of the electron-proton system and E(bound) = 13.8 eV the bound energy of the hydrogen ground state. The radius of this state is

r = h^2/(4∙π^2∙m’∙e^2). (2)

These formulas (1) and (2) can be used in order to calculate other Lagrange multipliers with other reduced masses and/or with other bound energies for two-particle systems.

To the electron-positron two-particle system belongs the positronium with the bound energy of E(bound) = 6.9 eV and also the electron-neutrino, νe = (e,p), with the bound energy E(νe, bound) = 2∙me∙c^2.
The proton-elton two-particle system give occasion to the formation of the proton-neutrino, νP = (P,E), with the bound energy E(νP, bound) = 2∙mP∙c^2.

The electron-neutrino, νe, is 0.703∙10^-13cm and the proton-neutrino νP, is 0.383∙10^-16cm large.
The stabile neutron, N0 =(P,e) with the bound energy, E(N0,bound) = 2.04 MeV is 0.702∙10^-13cm. The proton-electron two-particle system has also a state with the bound energy E((P,e),bound) = (mp+me)∙c^2 which is in order of the size of the proton-neutrino. This state is the energetic lowest state of the (P,e)-system, it is its ground state.

Scientifically there is no need for Big Bang, for deformed space-and time, for Black Holes + Dark Matter and for more than (3+1) dimensional space-time continuum.

Gyula I. Szász

#611
Gyula Szász
Moderator

Somebody, Bharath Chennu, wrote in net:

“There was so much discussion on this list about broken peer review in the journals and the journal editors are completely biased towards materialistic stand. So they cannot judge properly what is “Pseudoscience”. Journal editors should to be equal to both theistic and atheistic views and they should see which is justified by the evidence. Most importantly journal publications are motivated by gaining academic credential and profit making. Therefore there is no diving force towards genuineness of the works that are published in the journals.”

This can also be otherwise formulated.

Opposite to the overwhelming convictions of researchers, in physics is nothing proven. That means, not any prognoses of physical theories are confirmed by experiments.

Gyula I. Szász

#618
Bill Eshleman
Participant

I’m considering the possibility that the particles
that make-up matter are somehow merely space-time
phase shifts… no need for any deity, only a
physical reason for space-time to get “out-of-phase”,
in the opposite of the way delivered power is related
to the phase of voltage and current.

Given enough TIME, that is.

#619
Gyula Szász
Moderator

If you could explain with your “space-time phase shifts” the existence of the two elementary charges, qi and gi, of the four elementary particles, e, p, P and E, you would bring physics to new territories.

• This reply was modified 6 years, 3 months ago by Gyula Szász.
#621
Bill Eshleman
Participant

Ummm,
+360 degrees for unstable neutrons,
-360 degrees for unstable anti-neutrons

1) +270 degrees for the Proton (P)
2) -270 degrees for the anti-Proton (E)

3) +90 degrees for the electron (e)
4) -90 degrees for the anti-electron (p)

And charge and gravity are conjugates of
each other.

Which reflect into 8 properties.

But I am only about one man-hour into this
speculation… so I might be wrong. 🙁

#622
Gyula Szász
Moderator

Dear Bill,

the theoretical (the physical and mathematical) problem is clear:

Nature is apparently built up from four point-like, independent, stable objects with two independent, conserved physical properties. Point-like mean, these objects behave above 10^-17 cm as would they have two conserved elementary charges. Since a universal uncertainty principle is valid, the exact positions and the exact velocities of the elementary objects are unknown. (Just the same way, it is unknown if the four objects have an inner structure below 10^-17 cm which produce the four “point-like” objects with both physical properties. But, it is assumed that above 10^-17 cm no more stable objects and no more physical properties of the objects are existing.)

The two kinds of conserved elementary charges of the objects – they are the physical properties – generate two kinds of independent, continuous, non-conservative fields which propagate with c. The interactions between the stable objects above 10^-17 cm is described with the two independent fields.

Bill, you have the absolute freedom to do everything in regions below 10^-17 cm, but above 10^-17 cm the just described physical properties must come out.

Sincerely,
Gyula

#623
Gyula Szász
Moderator

All of this taken into accounts, the equations of motions for the fields and for the particles could be derived. The fields are described with four-vector potentials, the particles with normalized Dirac spinors.The fields and the particles have to fulfill subsidiary conditions in finite space-time regions.

Gyula

• This reply was modified 6 years, 3 months ago by Gyula Szász.
#625
Gyula Szász
Moderator

With other words, dear Bill, you have to explain inner connections between the natural constants c, e, mP, me and G=g^2/4π. The Lagrange multipliers in the equations of particle motions are connected to subsidiary conditions of the four stable particles.

#631
Gyula Szász
Moderator

Greatest possible mass density and closest approach between elementary particles

According to the formulae for Lagrange multipliers

h = e^2/2c ∙(m’∙c^2 /2∙E(bound))1/2

and for the radii of two-particle system

r= h^2/(4π^2m’e^2).

With the reduced mass m(P,e)’ = mP∙me/(mP+me) and the bound energy E(bound) =13.8 eV the “ground state of hydrogen atom” is characterized with the Planck constant as Lagrange multiplier

h(Planck) = 6.62607004∙10^-27 cm^2 g/s,

and the Bohr radius

r(Bohr) = 0.529177∙10^-8 cm.

Indeed, the energetic lowest ground system of the proton-electron system occurs at the bound energy

E((P,e)-ground state, bound) = (mp+me)∙c^2.

With this bound energy and with the reduces mass m(P,e)’ = mP∙me/(mP+me) the Lagrange multiplier is

h’ = h(Planck)∙0.0011831 = h(Planck)/845.2

and the radius is

r’ = r(Bohr)∙1.4∙10-8= 0.748∙10-16 cm.

This radius leads to a greatest mass density of matter

ρmax = (mP+me)/(4/3πr’^3) = 1.75∙10^+24 g/cm^3.

As the sizes, d, of the two particle systems in the ground state of the electron-positron (e,p) is

d(e,p) = 0.703∙10^-13 cm

and for the proton-elton (P,E) system

d(P,E) = 0.383∙10^-16 cm

one must notice that two elementary particles cannot approach each other under the influences of their mutual interaction nearer than 10^-17 cm.

• This reply was modified 6 years, 3 months ago by Gyula Szász.
• This reply was modified 6 years, 3 months ago by Gyula Szász.
• This reply was modified 6 years, 3 months ago by Gyula Szász.
• This reply was modified 6 years, 3 months ago by Gyula Szász.
• This reply was modified 6 years, 3 months ago by Gyula Szász.
#637
Gyula Szász
Moderator

The velocities of elementary particles can also be calculating according the formula for the energetic lowest state

(v/c)2/(1 – (v/c)2) ) = m’∙c^2/(2∙E(bound)).

As the bound energy of two-particle systems, E(max,bound), cannot be greater than the sum of the elementary masses of the two particles, the velocities of the elementary particles are always lower than c. However, they can reach almost c.

#638
Gyula Szász
Moderator

Newton’s law of gravitation
F = – G M m/r^2
is not a law of nature.

The law for the static gravitation
F = ± G Mg mg/r^2
could be considered as a law of nature with the conserved gravitational masses Mg and mg. The equation of motion in a static gravitational field, if the bodies are in rest, could also be considered as a law of nature, with the inertial mass, mi(body), and the gravitational mass, mg(body),
mi(body) a(body) = ± G Mg mg(body)/r^2.

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