# Historical Review of Physical Theories (eng)

I try to give a review of the results of physical theories and give a comparison of the developed theories to the atomistic theory of matter.

(The accepted) Energetic Theory

I summarize the main aspects of physical theories until 1900 and for the time afterward. The classical physics was developed under the premise of the knowledge of precise inertial conditions for point-like bodies (Euler, Lagrange and Hamilton) and mainly for closed physical system with conservative forces. Two pillars of the classical physics were the equation of motions of bodies in the gravitational field (Newton) and the Universality of Free Fall (the UFF-hypothesis of Galileo). The energy conservation is considered as the main attribute of each physical systems. Furthermore, the considerations of inertial systems and inertial masses have played a role; even if the inertial masses and the gravitational masses of each body are set equal, because of Galileo’s UFF assumption. With the discovery of the electrodynamics (Maxwell, Lorentz and Poincaré) two new physical aspects came to that, the electromagnetic interaction is non-conservative in the presence of charges and the constant propagation of the interaction with c is independent of the state of motion of the emitting bodies. Thus, one has to abandon the independences of space and time and connected space-time in one unit in Minkowski space for the electrodynamics. The gravitation is firstly left out of the theory, because there were no experimental observations available about the propagation of the gravitational field. In 1916, Einstein has developed a gravitation theory on the basics of the assumed equality of gravitational mass and inertial mass. This gravitation theory was created as an energetic theory: the stress-energy tensor has taken in to account the rest mass, energy and the curvature of space-time in the universe. Einstein has renounced completely the usage of the gravitational mass such as firstly announced by Newton in his gravity theory. Einstein did not regard the gravitation as interaction between bodies such as Newton did. This gravitation theory and the electrodynamics remained up to nowadays as two irreconcilable theories: They have two distinct metrics for space-time and moreover, the gravitation has space-time singularities, these are the so called Black Holes.

In 1900, Max Planck has attempted to explain the radiation spectrum of black bodies with a new introduced constant, h, which is assumed to quantize the energy, or the action. Planck was not very happy with his physical interpretation. During the annus mirabilis, 1905, Einstein has tried to explain with a heuristic assumption of light quanta with an energy E = h∙ν the phenomenon of the photoelectric effect observed by Lénárd Fülöp. Further, Einstein introduced on the basics of the theory of special relativity the energy-mass-equivalence E = m∙c2, then he believed that the inertia is equivalent to the energy content of bodies. Since in inertial systems no conclusions can be made to any known mass, Einstein’s mass in E = m∙c2 is an introduction of a third kind of mass. This mass has nothing to do with the inertial rest mass, nor with the gravitational mass of a body. Nevertheless, the physicists accept Einstein’s equivalence principle and they let create and annihilate particles according the rule E = m∙c2 without respect to other quantum properties of the particles. Furthermore, the physicists seem also belief on the creation of our universe during a Big Bang at a fixed time.

With the introduction of the Planck constant, Niels Bohr, Heisenberg and Schrödinger have constructed the quantum mechanics. Since not only the energies of bodies are assumed to be quantized, but also all interactions, with the second quantization a huge numbers of quantum field theories are created. The particles are generally furnished with several assumed quantum numbers and Feynman graphs give a covariant perturbations theory for the physical processes, however with appropriate renormalizations. Gauge bosons, with and without mass, play the role of interactions between quantum particles. The gravitation resists against each quantization procedure, so that string and membrane theories are cultivated for the purpose of quantization of the gravitation as well. These theories are designed in more dimensional space-time and in space regions of less than 10-30 cm. But, from these regions we don’t have any physical observable information and it could not yet derive any observable statement. Therefore, one has to consider the string-theories as pure scientifically speculations. It should be noted as well the quantum physics as the gravitation physics are in the scientific crisis.

(My main thoughts on a) Atomistic Theory

I asked me which basic assumptions of the classical physics are not correctly generalized. Which basic assumption of the classical physics has not been sufficiently analyzed and have create an atomistic theory of matter. At first, the assumption of the precise knowledge of initial conditions at fixed time points must be left out, because the positions and the velocities of particles/bodies can never be exactly measured. Furthermore, since all measurements are performed in finite regions of space and time, we have to consider always finite regions of Minkowski space for the development of physical theories. The consideration of Minkowski space presupposes that also the second fundamental interaction, the gravitation, propagates with c. The particles must be described only with probability density currents. Furthermore, I assumed the particle number conservations. The consideration of indivisible elementary particles with conserved physical properties is the fundamental assumption of the atomistic theory of matter. The four kinds of indivisible elementary particles are the electron (e), positron (p), proton (P) and the elton (E). The elton is called as “antiproton” in the academic physics. The physical properties are the conserved elementary charges, qi = {±e} for the electricity and gi = {±g∙me, ±g∙mP} for the gravitation, with the invariant masses of electron and proton, me and mP, and with the universal gravitational constant G = g2/4π. The elementary charges play a double role; they characterize the elementary particles and they cause the interactions between the particles, while the interactions propagate with c. The action integral is a probability density functional and is constructed only by Lorentz invariant terms depending only on five natural constants, c, e, me, mP and g. In order to derive the time progress of physical processes, the Euler-Lagrange equations are used and the theory don’t need more than appropriate boundary and subsidiary conditions for the interacting fields and for the particles. The particle number conservations as subsidiary conditions cause the appearance of Lagrange multipliers in the equation of particles motions. The role of the Planck constant, h, is clear now, it is a Lagrange multiplier. The h does neither quantize the energy, nor the interactions. The atomistic theory of matter is a new relativistic quantum field theory in which only the sources of the interacting fields are quantized. Relativistic means the motions of particles relative to each other and/or to c This quantum gravitodynamics has the same theoretical structure as the electrodynamics with the only difference that the gravitation need four kinds of elementary charges while the electromagnetism only two. Self-evident, the gravitation is very much weaker than the electromagnetism. The elementary particles are not composed by quarks or by other particles. However, they compose all other observed particles and nuclei governed by the Lagrange multiplier h0= h/387.

The atomistic theory of matter completes Boltzmann’s concept for description of nature and is against the positions of Mach and Einstein “that the overall distribution of matter would determine the metric tensor, which tells you which frame is rotationally stationary”. The distribution of indivisible particles doesn’t determine the metric of space-time; however, the distribution can be described in each coordinate systems of the Minkowski space. Physical decisive are the relative position and velocities between particles and the relative velocities compared to c, but these quantities can never be observed precisely. Space-time is an idealization; a space point at a fixed time cannot be fixed with point-like particles.

Within the atomistic theory of matter as well the nearest approach between the point-like elementary particles could be calculated which does not lie below 10-17 cm; that means singularities don’t occur in the interactions. As the different gravitational and inertial rest masses of bodies could also be calculated with the invariant masse of electron and proton; the relative mass defects of bodies, Δ(body), are in the range

– 0.109% (hydrogen atom) < Δ(body)  < + 0.784% (56Fe isotope).

From this follows, Galileo’s UFF-hypothesis was a physically invalid assumption.

My experience for about forty years research is that physicists which grow up in energetic dominated theories are not able and are not ready to follow my argumentations which lead to the structurally more simple atomistic theory of matter than other theories do. Therefore, my basic theory didn’t yet found the way in the currently scientific circulation.

Gyula I. Szász, Ingelheim, 07.01.2017