Reply To: New Basics in Physics

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Gyula Szász

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New Basics of Physics; a Memorandum

The Memorandum is addressed on each researcher in physics, on each particle physicist and on each astrophysicist worldwide, and on the physical journals, Phys. Rev., European Journal of Physics, ZNA, and Foundation of Physics, who have rejected the New Basics of Physics. The rejections were founded because the editors did not found my submitted papers suitable for publication violating very tough standards based on SR, GR and QT.
The memorandum is putted in, in the forum Gravitation as a thread New Basics in Physics.

The Fundamental Principles in Physics is formulated in my basis paper in which it is shown that the currently accepted principles of the relativity theories, SR and GR, and of the quantum theories (QT) have physically invalid basics. These theories are only scientifically conventions; however, they are physically unusable for the creation of comprehensive physical theories. Generally, the energetic physics is unsuitable for physical theories and must be replaced by the scientifically more appropriate Atomistic Theory of Matter.
The Basic Postulates of Physics are, see my article “Fundamental Principle in Physics”,

1. The continuous interaction field is always propagating in empty space with a definite velocity c and it is independent of the state of motion of the interacting body. Or: The speed of interaction in free space has a constant value c and it is independent of the motion of the sources. (Invariance of Interaction)
2. The sources of the interaction field are quantized with conserved elementary charges. The sources of the interacting field are the stable elementary particles. (Principle of Quantization).
3. All physical systems are to be described in finite range of space-time and neither the positions, nor the velocities of particles can be ever observed exactly. (Principle of Uncertainty)

The continuous interacting field is the addition of the time-dependent electromagnetic field, A(em)ν(x), and the time-dependent gravitational field, A(g)ν(x), in a finite range of the Minkowski space, {x}ε Ω. These fields are non-conservative fields in presence of charges and they propagate with c. The elementary particles are to be described with probability densities.

The quantized sources of the fields are the elementary electric charges, qi = {- e, + e, + e, – e}, and elementary gravitational charges, gi = {- g∙me, + g∙me, + g∙mP, – g∙mP}, in the sequence of the electron (e), positron (p), proton (P) and elton (E), The name elton is another label for the fourth elementary particle, instead of the name “antiproton”. The masses me and mP are the elementary masses of the electron and the proton. The universality of gravitations is embodied in the fact that all elementary particles have the same specific gravitational charges, g; that means the universal gravitational constant G is G = g^2/4π. The elementary particles e, p, P and E have two conserved charges, qi and gi. They are stable particles and are the quantized sources of the interaction fields. The particles e, p, P and E can never be annihilated or created and of course, their masses multiplied with c^2, me∙c^2 and mP∙c^2, are not equivalent to energies.

The static force equations between two elementary charges are known

F(Coulomb)(rij) = + qi∙qj∙rij/4∙π∙rij^3 and
F(Newton)(rij) = – gi∙gj∙rij/4∙π∙rij^3.

They distinguish formally only by the signs. However, the difference of the strength of the forces is enormous; it is e^2/(g∙mP)^2 ≈ 10^42. The difference of the signs of the electromagnetic and the gravitational static forces appear also in the equations of the field motions

∂α ∂αA(em)β(x) = + j(em)β(x),
∂α ∂αA(g)β(x) = – j(g)β(x).

The first equation is known as the Maxwell equation; the second equation is new; it is derived within the Atomistic Theory of Matter on the basics of the new physical basic postulates from a Lorentz-invariant Lagrange density. Both fields must fulfill its own subsidiary condition

∂β A(em)β(x) = 0, respectively ∂β A(g)β(x) = 0.

These subsidiary conditions accomplish that the fields propagate with the constant velocity c. Also the “particle fields” must fulfill subsidiary conditions; they are expressed by the continuity equations of the conserved particle number currents

∂β ji(n)β(x) = 0, i = e, p, P, E.

The main scientifically mistake of the current energetic physics is that the researchers did not distinguish between the physical meaning of the continuous fields, A(em)ν(x) and A(g)ν(x), and the probability current densities of charges

ji(em)β(x) = qi∙ji(n)β(x) and ji(g)β(x) = gi∙ji(n)β(x) , i = e, p, P, E.

The researchers did never really reconcile the Maxwell equation with the quantized electric charges. There is a big scientifically difference between continuous functions, such as the fields, A(em)ν(x) and A(g)ν(x), and probability current densities, ji(n)β(x), describing the elementary particles carrying quantized charges, qi and gi. Since the positions and velocities of particles can never be exactly observed (Principle of Uncertainty), the particles must be always described with probability densities as continuous functions of space and time, but the stable particles are still discrete tiny objects. The Noether-theorem – connecting conserved charges and space-time symmetry – carries also this mistake. The so called Noether-charges

qi = ∫V ji(em)0(r,t) d3r and
gi = ∫V ji(g)0(r,t) d3r, i=e,p,P,E,

integrated about a small volume V, are not Lorentz scalars, as some times argued, but they are really invariant quantities. However, these invariant charges cannot be defined for instance by scalar products of two vectors of Minkowski space. The quantized elementary charges, qi and gi, which generate the fields, A(em)ν(x) and A(g)ν(x), are another kind of invariants as the invariants which can be constructed by spinors, vectors and tensors in Minkowski space. A special case occurs with the invariant gravitational charges, gi. Since the universality of gravitation means that the special gravitational charge, g, is the same for all elementary particles, the elementary masses me and mP can also be considered also as invariants. The generalizations of the Noether-theorem – used in the current particle physics theories for symmetry considerations and conservation laws, for instance for energy, impulse and angular momentum conservation – must be taken under a legitimate revision. The invariant construction of the Lagrange density with the fields, A(em)ν(x), A(g)ν(x), with the probability current densities, ji(em)β(x) and ji(g)β(x), and with mi and c – to derive the covariant equations of motions for the fields and for the particles – is not covered by the Noether-theorem.

It should be also noticed that with the elementary masses me and mP can be expressed as well the gravitational masses, mg, as the inertial masses, mi, of each particle systems. From the static force follow the gravitational masses

mg = |(NP – NE)∙mP + (Np – Ne)∙me|.

The gravitational interaction between two particles contains always a product of two gravitational masses. The inertial masses are resulting from the action integral, see later,

mi = (NP + NE)∙mP + (Np + Ne)∙me – E(bound)/c^2.

Ni are the particle numbers for i=e,p,P,E. The inertial masses contain additionally the bound energies of the particle systems, E(bound), divided by c^2. The energies E(bound) are radiated from the bound particles. The Mach’s principle that the inertia of bodies depends on the whole mass of the Universe is obviously invalid. The two masses, mg and mi, are always greater or equal zero; however, and they are generally different. Therefore, the more that 300 year old Newtonian equation of motion of bodies in the gravitational field must be enhanced

mi(body) ∙ a(body) = – G∙M(Body) ∙ m(body)/r^2.

The accelerations of bodies, a(body), depend on the composition

a(body) = a0∙mg(body)/mi(body) = a0∙(1 + Δ(body)),

through the mass defect Δ(body). The mass defects are phenomenological known for each isotope, Δ(isotope); it can be calculated from the experimentally known inertial masses of isotopes, mi(isotope), and the associated gravitational masses, mg(isotope), to be

– 0.109% (hydrogen) < Δ(body) < 0.784% (56Fe-isotope).

With a knowledge of the isotope compositions of bodies and with Δ(isotope) the mass defect, Δ(body), can be sufficiently accurate calculated for each body. It follows that the hypothesis of Galileo about the Universality of Free Fall (UFF) with the assumption

a(body) = a0 = constant,

for each body is obviously physical invalid. The planets Uranus and Mars offer already violations of the UFF, since the difference of their R^3/T^2-values is 0.15%. Newton, Euler and Lagrange have not recognized and could not count with gravitational charges of two signs. They belief that the gravitation is a universal mass attraction and have calculated with the equality of the gravitational and the inertial masses, mg = mi which are obviously invalid.

Now, we shall consider two-particle-systems. Within two-particle-systems, the electron-neutrino, νe = (e,p), and proton-neutrino, νP = (P,E), have the gravitational masses and inertial masses zero; this is the appropriate definition of the neutrinos. The sizes of the neutrinos are 0.703∙10^-13 cm, respectively 0.383∙10^-16 cm. The proton-electron two-particle-system, (P,e), generally known as hydrogen atom, could also have the inertial mass zero, if it is E(bound) = (mP +me)∙c^2. In this case, the bound (P,e)-system is 0.382∙10-16cm large. The (P,e)-system can also build a stable neutron N0 = (P,e) at the energy E(bound) = 2.04 MeV. The size of N0 is 0.702∙10^-13 cm. Since νe = (e,p) and N0 = (P,e) have almost the same size, we conclude that the nuclei on the Earth, with sizes somewhat greater than 10^-13cm, are composed of protons, electrons and positrons. The neutron is obviously not elementary particle. The sizes of νe = (e,p) and νP = (P,E) confirm that the two particles (e,p) and (P,E) are not annihilated at their physical merging; that is in opposition to the assumptions what the Standard Model of Particle Physics currently uses, based on the equivalence principle of energy and mass, E = m∙c2.

The masses of bodies are non-equivalent to the energy. Form a particle system with the mass
m = (NP + NE)∙mP + (Ne + Np)∙me,
the energy E = m∙c^2 can be only gained if, and only if, the particle system had before a bound state with the energy
E(bound) = ((NP + NE)∙mP + (Ne + Np)∙me)∙c^2
The particle system exists completely also in such a bound state. From vacuum can never gained energy and vacuum is not the fluctuation of virtual particle-antiparticle pairs. Virtual particles do not exist in Nature.

The physics according to the three Basic Postulates is also a quantum field theory. However, only the sources of the interacting fields are quantized by the four kinds of stable elementary particles. Thus, this quantum field theory is an Atomistic Theory of Matter based on e, p, P, and E. Moreover, since the sizes of all microscopic objects are much smaller than the wavelengths of their electromagnetic radiations, their light emissions are continuous wave processes with continuous submission of energies and not corpuscular phenomena. The quantization procedure of the electromagnetic field and the energy, according to Max Planck, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, with the Planck constant, h, makes physically no sense.

The Planck constant, h, is connected to Lagrange Multipliers appearing in the equations of motions of the particles due to subsidiary conditions caused by conserved particle numbers, respectively caused by conserved charges. The field equations of the electromagnetic and gravitational fields, the interactions, are not quantized. However, several Lagrange Multipliers, λj, appear in particle processes. The Lagrange Multipliers with the additional conditions that the particle systems in the mutual interactions are temporary stationary lead to different bound states, with different bound energies E(bound). For such Lagrange Multipliers, h, a phenomenological relation is known since Sommerfeld for the hydrogen atom

h = e^2 /2c ⋅ (m‘⋅c^2 /2⋅E(bound))^1/2 = e^2 /2c ⋅ 1/ α .

This relation connects the reduced mass,
m‘=me∙mP/(me + mP),
and the bound energy, E(bound), to the values of h with the invariants, e and c.
α = (2⋅E(bound) / m’⋅c^2 )^1/2 is considered as the relative velocity of particles, v/c, in the bound state in relation to c. In case of the hydrogen atom with the bound energy E(bound) = 13.8 eV we get for h the value of the Planck constant h and for α the value of α = 1/137.036. Up to nowadays, the quantum physicists do not know why α has this value. In the case of the electron-neutrino, νe = (e,p), with the bound energy E(bound) = 2∙me∙c^2 we get another value for the Lagrange Multiplier, h0 = h/387. h0 is responsible for the occurrences of both neutrinos νe = (e,p), νP = (P,E), and of the stable neutron N0 = (P,e). At the nuclei, h0 is responsible for all the physical processes and not the Planck constant, h. The instable neutron N is composed on four particles, N = (P,e,p,e).

Additionally, another phenomenological relation is also known for the radius of bound states

r(bound) = h^2/(4∙π^2∙m’∙e^2).

This relation dependents on the reduced mass, m’, and on h beside on the invariant elementary electric charge, e, and allows the calculation of the size of the bound states.

We can also calculate as well the sizes, r(bound), as the relative velocities of particles,

(v/c)/(1 – (v/c)^2)^1/2 = (2⋅E(bound) / m’⋅c^2)^1/2,

with the reduced mass m’ and with the bound energy E(bound) for each bound state of two-particle systems, it does not matter how great the bound energy, E(bound), is compared with m’.
For the calculation of E(bound) we have a variation principle containing Lagrange Multiplier, h, in the mutual interaction of particles. The bound states are characterized by the fact that no radiations and no particles currents occur from the bound states; that means within the bound states, the particle number densities are time independent and the particle number currents vanish.

The action integral

I = ∫Ω L(x) d^4x,

integrated over a finite range of Minkowski space Ω, is constructed with a Lorentz-invariant Lagrange-density,

L(x) = L(A(em)ν(x), ∂βA(em)ν(x),A(g)ν(x), ∂βA(g)ν(x),ji(n)ν(x), ∂βji(n)ν(x),qi,gi,mi,c), i = e,p,P,E.

The Lagrange-density can also be expressed instead of the invariant constants, qi, gi, mi, and c, with the five natural constants, c, e, me, mp and g = (4∙π∙G)1/2, since qi, = {±e}, gi = {±g∙mi},

L(x) = L(A(em)ν(x), ∂βA(em)ν(x),A(g)ν(x), ∂βA(g)ν(x),ji(n)ν(x), ∂βji(n)ν(x),mP,me,g,e,c).

However, it should be noticed that during the fields, A(em)ν(x) and A(g)ν(x), are continuous functions of x, the ji(n)β(x) are x dependent probability density currents of the particles.

According to the continuity equations of the particles with particle numbers conservations

∂β ji(n)β(x) = 0, i = e, p, P, E

the subsidiary conditions

Gi = ∫Ω ∂β ji(n)β(x) d^4x = 0,

must be take into account at the variation of the action integral I, in order to derive the equations of particles motions. That means, the Lagrange Multipliers, λj, shall appear in finite ranges of Minkowski space at the variation of the action integral for the subsidiary conditions

δ I = δ ∫Ω L(x) d^4x + Σj Σi=e,p,P,E ∙ λj ∙ δ Gi =0.

Now, we are seeking stationary solutions of this variation principle. The bound states are fixed at temporary stationary solutions of the variation principle for the mutual interactions of particles. The mutual interactions mean conditional probability densities current of particles as a function of relative distances and relative velocities of the particles. The relativity enters on this place in the theory. The variation principle shows that the Planck constant h appears only in the equations of particle motions and it is missed in the equations of field motions. With other words, the interaction is not quantized; only the sources of the interacting fields are quantized. This corresponds to a quantum field theory, to the Atomistic Theory of Matter.

Summary with conclusion for the used Standard Models

The New Basic Postulates in Physics deal only with four kinds of stable particles e, p, P and E having two invariant charges in finite ranges of the Minkowski space. This is a quantum field theory quite different from theories used in the currently accepted Standard Model of Particle Physics resulting the confused list of particles This list of particles is not based on physical valid postulates. Also the list of the elementary particles of the Standard Model,, is questioned, because the quark-substructure of the elementary particles e, p, p and E was donned as a trial, but is experimentally not confirmed. The Higgs particles are not needed to explain the masses of particles, we have the explanation with the elementary masses me and mP. Gauge bosons are also not need for the constructions of interactions. In the new quantum field theory the interactions between the particles are not quantized and no more interactions are needed than the non-conservative electromagnetism and gravitation, however, without the relation E = m∙c^2. The gravitation is also built in the particle physics and there is no need for the search of the so called “quantum gravitation” in more than three dimensional spaces and in distances less than 10^-30 cm. The wave-particle dualism lacks physical basics.

The currently used Standard Model of Astrophysics which is based on Einstein’s field equation with the deformation of space-time around masses is also a physically questionable trial because the UFF is violated. In the new quantum field theory the gravitational field is caused by conserved gravitational charges, gi = {± g∙mi}, and the gravitation, A(g)ν(x), is a continuous time-dependent field in finite ranges of Minkowski space. The currently obtained implications of the Standard Model of Astrophysics, the Big Band, the Black Holes, the Dark Matter and the accelerated expansion of the Universe, are lacking any physical basics. Since proton and elton have a repulsive gravitation, in the Universe exist galaxies which attract and which repel each other. The neutrino-like particles, all with the gravitational masses zero, convey as particles between this two kinds of galaxies, apart from the electromagnetic and the gravitation fields. Most probably, the whole Universe can be described with only five natural constants, c, e, me, mP and G = g^2/4π. The Lagrange Multipliers are not natural constants and the Boltzmann constant, k, is responsible only for one kind of equilibrium condition of matter.

The experimentally found gravitation is not such simple as the accepted gravitation theory said about more than 400 years; the UFF is violated

The revision of physics must begin with an enhanced theory of Kepler, Galileo and Newton for the gravitation; the basic theories within the energetic physics, SR, GR and QT, developed since the beginning of 20th century were not suitable to describe comprehensibly Nature.

Ingelheim, 17.04.2016,
Gyula I. Szász