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The comparison of the relativity theories (RT) with the Atomistic Theory of Matter (ATOM).
In the RT is the inertial mass mi set equal to the gravitational mass mg, mi = mg, and the gravitational mass is thrown away. Furthermore, it is only calculated in RT with inertial mass m and the following relations are valid: E = m∙c^2 and E^2 = (m0∙c^2)^2 +(p∙c)^2. The inertial mass m depends of the velocity v; it is the relativistic mass. The calculation of the “rest mass”, m0, cannot be done in RT; it remains open what the “rest mass” is. This situation is not only dissatisfying, but scientifically impossible. The physicists do not know what “rest mass” is and they cannot really calculate what relativistic mass is! The ambiguity of “mass” remains at the use of RT and nobody take notice from it. It remains the central unsolved problem of the whole accepted modern physics.
For the four elementary particles e,p,P, E are the gravitational masse mgj equal to the inertial masses mij: mgj = mij, j=e,p,P,E.
All masses composed bodies of Ni elementary particles can be calculated with the elementary masses mP and me. The gravitational masses of composed bodies are
mg(Ne, Np, NP, NE) = |(NP – NE)∙mP + (Np – Ne)∙me|,
At the gravitational mass is respected that the gravitational charges, gi, have different signs gi = ± g ∙mi; the gravitational constant is G and g = (4π∙G)^1/2 and further, in the Newtonian force equation the product of gravitational charges appears.
The inertial “rest masses” (at COM motion with v=0) of composed bodies are
mi(Ne, Np, NP, NE) = (NP + NE)∙mP + (Np + Ne)∙me – E(bound)/c^2.
E(bound) is the bound energy of the composed body; the inertial mass is greater or equal zero. The “rest mass” is unambiguously defined in ATOM and obviously the two masses of composed bodies are different. Alone this fact is an advantage in ATOM and is against RT!
The relativistic mass is defined only as approximation from the covariant equations of particle motions; the equations of motions contain also the two fundamental fields which propagate with c. But the bound energy is defined only at v=0 COM motion. Furthermore, we have also the uncertainty that we never know the velocity of particles exactly. The Lorentz factor contains the relativistic addition of velocities and it is only usable for exactly known velocities of particles.
The comparison of RT and ATOM shows that RT cannot be used as well at “rest masses” as at the relativistic masses correctly thus without approximation.