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Gyula Szász

Why is a new beginning in physics necessary?

Dear colleagues,

sometimes, one is faced with the statement that in physics are “why-questions” not allowed. Nevertheless, we have to answer the question why is a new beginning in physics necessary? Thereby at first, we must to bring in mind how research works in physics.

Form very accurate results of measurement, physics try to explain what the surrounding nature is and how natural processes are proceeding in time. The first part, to determine what the surrounding nature would be, is the most difficult part of the scientific problem because infinite accurate physical measurements cannot be performed and the experimental observations are always localized in finite space-time regions. The second part, to determine the time proceeding of physical processes, depends on the recognition what nature is, and how the interactions between constituents of matter are which would finally allows deriving prognoses for the time developments. In order to solve these connected problems usually some fundamental physical assumptions are established, the so called fundamental hypotheses. The fundamental hypotheses must at first taking into account the measuring procedures, they must be generally valid and must be able to give a determination what matter physically is and how the time depending prognoses can be derived by a mathematical formalism. At the determination of fundamental hypotheses, the most important would be to clear up what are constant physical quantities and what are none. The principal task of physical researchers must be to find the fundamental natural constants which characterize matter and to derive the time development of physical processes from those constants.

The for 400 years established physics considered the energy conservation as the main fundamental principle, despite of the fact that closed physical systems don’t exist and, most probably, all physical interactions are non-conservative interactions. The currently best known interaction, the electromagnetic interaction, is a non-conservative interaction. The overwhelming numbers of theories in physics use the energy conservation as fundamental principle: the energetic physics has been broad established. The researchers have tried to connect all important physical quantities with energy. At the beginning of the last century, in a time when the atomistic and energetic physics have arranged a non-reconcilable duel, the physicists decided wholly for the energetic physics: they quantized the energy with E = h∙ν, declared the energy-mass equivalence, E = m∙c^2, and the gravitation was also explained with a stress-energy tensor. Natural, the researchers have tried also to derive the time-developments of physical processes from energy-expressions. The classical physics is half-hearted generalized to quantum theories; such physical statements remain: it is assumed a quantum state is completely known at a fixed time t. The success to find the fundamental natural constants remains unrealized and generally valid equations of motions could also not be derived. Nevertheless, the researchers remain at their fundamental principle of energy conservation and lead the physics in a deadlock. Nowadays, it is impossible to say what matter is and what the quantized interactions are and how they look like. Thus, more than the (3+1)-dimensional space-time continuums are also discussed. The researchers have setting up several further ad-hoc assumptions, such as the spin of particles and the existence of quarks and gauge bosons for the description of particles and interactions. At the end, a complete physical explanation of nature could not be reached. Opposite to the overwhelming convictions of researchers, nature is not sufficiently accurate described within the established physics. The gravitation could not be incorporated in the established quantum theories.

These are the mean arguments why I have broken with the energetic physics.

At first, I defined fundamental physical constants and I derived the time developments of physical processes from these constants. I distinguished between matter and interactions which are present between all constituents of matter. According to these assumptions, matter is composed of point-like, localizable physical objects and the interactions are continuous fields. Thus, I have subdivided nature in particles and fields. The constituents of matter are fixed with conserved physical characteristics and these physical properties generate the fields. A further fundamental constant, the constant propagation velocity of the interactions, c, is also assumed. Therefore, the space-time continuum is to be described in Minkowski space. The constant propagation of the interactions is independent of the state of matter at the emission. The interaction fields are assumed as not be quantized; they are non-conservative and are defined in finite space-time regions. At the generalization of classical physics, the measuring procedures are taking into account: I didn’t assume the exact knowledge of initial conditions. That means, I don’t use exact positions and exact velocities of particle at any time. And natural, I didn’t suppose ad-hoc that all bodies move in the gravitational field with the same acceleration. I supposed that the constituents of matter have two kinds of conserved physical characteristics. The physical characteristics of the elementary particles are two kinds of conserved elementary charges which cause the two fundamental interactions between the particles. The only fundamental physical constants are the two kinds of conserved charges, together with the constant propagation of the interactions, c. The gravitation and the electromagnetic fields, caused by elementary charges appear always together.

This theory is a quantized unified field theory, however, only the sources of the fields are quantized with the conserved elementary charges. The theory is an Atomistic Theory of Matter based on four kinds of stable elementary particles carrying two kinds of elementary charges. The theory is described in At the concrete realization, I refer to the stable elementary particles, the electron (e), the positron (p), the proton (P) and the elton (E). The elton is labeled with the name “antiproton” in the established physics. For protons, the lifetime is measured to be greater than 1030 years and none proton-decays are experimentally observed. The four kinds of stable elementary particles have two kinds of conserved elementary charges, the elementary electric charges qi = {± e} and the elementary gravitational charges, gi = {± g∙mi}. The elementary gravitational charges, gi, are connected to the universal gravitational constant, G = g^2/4∙π and to the elementary masses, mp and me, of proton and electron. The elementary masses are not equivalent to energy; they remain always the same; they can neither annihilate, nor can be created in any physical processes. It is further assumed that the elementary particles are not composed of other particles. The main difference to the established physics is to consider the gravitation as caused by elementary gravitational charges, gi with two signs for the gravitational interaction between particles. Therefore, attractive and repulsive gravitation exist and it could be neither considered as universal mass-attraction, nor as caused by deformation of space-time around masses.

An action integral for the field and the particles is set up in finite ranges of Minkowski space in a form which is valid for all possible large velocities of particles. The action integral contains five natural constants, c, e, mp, me and g. Furthermore, for the fields and particles subsidiary conditions must be taken into account at the variation principle and naturally boundary conditions. The action integral with the subsidiary conditions is taken for the derivation of equations of motions for field and particles. The subsidiary conditions of particles include the particle numbers conservations and produce Lagrange multipliers in the equations of motion for the particles. The Planck constant, h, is such a Lagrange multiplier. But, the action integral is not an expression for energy. The action integral allows also calculating bound energies and lifetimes for composite particle systems with the help of Lagrange multipliers. Such mathematic procedures were unknown in the established physics. For all composite particle systems both masses, the gravitational masses and the inertial masses, can be calculated and they are different. The different gravitational and inertial masses for different composite particle system lead to violation of the Universality of Free Fall. This is the first most important deviation to the established physics; see lecture

These explanations give answer why a new beginning in physics had to be done. The prognoses of the new unified quantum field theory have to be derived for all possible physical processes and their controls must be performed with experiments. Only if the prognoses of the new theory for all physical processes are confirmed by the results of experiments, without any new physical assumptions, would we accept the new theory to describe nature complete.

Thus, also after that case some “why-questions” remain: Why the four kinds of stable particles are existing, and not more? Why the elementary particles appear as would they have two kinds of conserved physical properties? And why the interactions propagate with c? But, most probably, the answering of these last few “why-questions” belongs not to problems which could be solved within physics.

Gyula I. Szász