# Reply To: What is matter?

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#606
Gyula Szász
Moderator

The particles/bodies have always two masses

The particles/bodies are composed of four kinds of stable elementary particles (electron (e), positron (p), proton (P) and elton (E)). The elementary particles are not composed of other particles and there exist no other particles than e, p, P and E.

The gravitational masses, mg, of particles/bodies are conserved
mg(NP,NE,Ne,Np) = |(NP-NE)∙mP + (Np-Ne)∙me|,
whereby Ni are the number of elementary particles, e, p, P and E, and mP, me are the mass of the proton and the electron, atomsz.com .

The gravitation is caused of the conserved elementary charges, gi = g∙mi with the universal gravitational constant G = g^2/4∙π. The elementary masses, mP, me, are derived from the conserved elementary charges, gi. The static gravitational force between two elementary particles is

F(g)(rij) = – gi∙gj∙rij /4∙π∙ rij^3.

Depending on the sign of gi, there exists also repulsive gravitational force.

The inertial masses, mi, of particles/bodies

mi(NP,NE,Ne,Np) = (NP+NE)∙mP + (Np+Ne)∙me –E(bound)/c^2

appear in the equation of motion. The interaction between particles is always the addition of the gravitational and electromagnetic interactions. The electromagnetic interaction is also caused of conserved elementary charges, qi = {±e} and the static electric force is

F(em)(rij) = + qi∙qj∙rij /4∙π∙ rij^3.

There exist no other interaction between the stable elementary particles than the electromagnetism and the gravitation and these interactions propagate with the constant velocity c.

Obviously, the gravitational and inertial masses of composed particles are different. That means the Universality of Free Fall is obviously violated https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WsyJjxC7SRc .

The gravitational and inertial masses of particle/bodies are greater or equal zero. For the neutrinos νe =(e,p) and νP =(P,E) are both masses zero. The elementary masses mP, me can be neither annihilated, nor created.

This theory is an Atomistic Theory of Matter. The modern physics developed in the last century was an energetic theory which must be obviously replaced.

Gyula I. Szász

The Universality of Free Fall (UFF) is violated
The overwhelming numbers of physical researchers are the meaning that the UFF is valid for all bodies. Also Einstein believed on the UFF.

However, in reality the UFF is violated:

Proton based electric neutral bodies
– attract proton based electric neutral bodies with different accelerations,
– neutrinos are neither attracted, nor repulsed,
– repulse elton (”antiproton”) based electric neutral bodies with different accelerations.
Elton based electric neutral bodies
– repulse proton based electric neutral bodies with different accelerations,
– neutrinos are neither attracted, nor repulsed,
– attract elton (”antiproton”) based electric neutral bodies with different accelerations.

Gyula I. Szász

The four kinds of stable elementary particles, e, p, P and E, cannot approach each other nearly than 10^-17 cm under the influence of their own interactions.

Gyula I. Szász

The fundamental interactions are non-conservative

The electromagnetic and the gravitational interactions are non-conservative since they are emitted by radiating particles. The particles radiate fields which propagate with the constant velocity c and the propagations are independent of the state of the emitting particles. The positions and velocities of the particles are never known exactly.

In Minkowski space in which the fields and the particles move, the equations of particle motions contain Lagrange multipliers because of the subsidiary conditions of the particle numbers conservation. The Planck constant

h = e^2/2c∙(m’∙c^2/2∙E(bound))^1/2 (1)

is a Lagrange multiplier, whereby m’ = me∙mp/(me+mP) is the reduced mass of the electron-proton system and E(bound) = 13.8 eV the bound energy of the hydrogen ground state. The radius of this state is

r = h^2/(4∙π^2∙m’∙e^2). (2)

These formulas (1) and (2) can be used in order to calculate other Lagrange multipliers with other reduced masses and/or with other bound energies for two-particle systems.

To the electron-positron two-particle system belongs the positronium with the bound energy of E(bound) = 6.9 eV and also the electron-neutrino, νe = (e,p), with the bound energy E(νe, bound) = 2∙me∙c^2.
The proton-elton two-particle system give occasion to the formation of the proton-neutrino, νP = (P,E), with the bound energy E(νP, bound) = 2∙mP∙c^2.

The electron-neutrino, νe, is 0.703∙10^-13cm and the proton-neutrino νP, is 0.383∙10^-16cm large.
The stabile neutron, N0 =(P,e) with the bound energy, E(N0,bound) = 2.04 MeV is 0.702∙10^-13cm. The proton-electron two-particle system has also a state with the bound energy E((P,e),bound) = (mp+me)∙c^2 which is in order of the size of the proton-neutrino. This state is the energetic lowest state of the (P,e)-system, it is its ground state.

Scientifically there is no need for Big Bang, for deformed space-and time, for Black Holes + Dark Matter and for more than (3+1) dimensional space-time continuum.

Gyula I. Szász